# 進階的假設語氣

## wish 與 if only 的假設語氣

wish 是一個動詞，指「但願」、「希望」之意。一般來說，會使用到 wish 這個字，就代表著這個願望是不太可能發生的。正因為這種「與事實不符」的特性，在 wish 後所加的句子必須使用假設語氣：

S1 + wish + S2 +V$_過$
S1 + wish + S2 were N/ adj.

S1 + wish + S2 had Vpp.

I wish I lived near the school.
(但願我住在學校附近。)

I wish I were taller.
(我希望自己能高點。)
I wish I were rich.
= I wish I had more money.
(我希望自己有錢。)

I wish I had not said that to Mom.
(真希望當時我沒對媽媽說出那種話！)
I wish I had studied harder!
(真希望我以前認真一點!)

If only I lived near the school.
= Would (that) I lived near the school.

## wish 與 hope 的不同

wish 與 hope 兩個字在中文中同樣表示「希望」，但是在英文中，是有些許不同的。一般來說，wish 用來表達不會實現的願望，因次會使用假設語氣；hope 則用來表達有可能實現的願望，後面常接現在式或未來式。例如：

Dad hopes he will be promoted next year.
(爸爸希望明年能升職 ⇒ 爸爸有可能升職。)
I hope I can study abroad next year.
(我希望明年能出國念書 ⇒ 我有可能出國念書。)

## as if 與 as though 的假設語氣

as ifas though 是連接詞，用來表達「彷彿」、「好像」，用於「與事實相反」的情境。其使用的規則是：

... as if + S + V$_過$
... as if + S + were + N/adj.
... as if + S + had Vpp.

Jenny talks as if she were my mom.
(Jenny講得好像他是我媽媽一樣。)
The young lady walks as if she were an old woman.
(這年輕少女走路像老太婆一樣。)

The white-faced young lady looks as if she had seen a ghost just now.
(這個臉色發白的少女彷彿剛剛看到的鬼！)

## as if 與 as though 不一定用假設語氣

as ifas though 兩個字經常與假設語氣用再一起，但是這並不代表假設語氣是必要的。as ifas though 後面其實也可以使用「直說法」的！例如：

Samuel looks as if he hasn't slept all night.
(Samuel看起來整晚沒睡。)

## 「要不是」、「若沒有」的假設語氣

(If it were not for + N,
= Were it not for + N, (上一句的倒裝)
= But for + N,
= Without+ N,
= But that S + V現,
= Only that S + V現)
+ S + would/ could/ should/ might V$_R$

If it were not for the Internet, my life might be dull.
= Were it not for the Internet, my life might be dull.
= But for the Internet, my life might be dull.
= Without the Internet, my life might be dull.
But that there is the Internet, my life might be dull.
= Only that there is the Internet, my life might be dull.

( If it had not been for + N,
= Had it not been for + N, (上一句的倒裝)
= But for + N, = Without+ N,
= But that S + V過,
= Only that S + V過)
+ S + would/ could/ should/ might have Vpp.

If it had not been for your support, Neil wouldn’t have gotten into MIT.
= Had it not been for your support, Neil wouldn’t have gotten into MIT.
= But for your support, Neil wouldn’t have gotten into MIT.
= Without your support, Neil wouldn’t have gotten into MIT.
= But that you supported Neil, he wouldn’t have gotten into MIT.
= Only that you supported Neil, he wouldn’t have gotten into MIT.

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